Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic induction was independently discovered by Faraday in 1831 and by Henry in 1832. Faraday was prominent in publishing the results of his experiments.

In Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction, he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of the iron ring. Based on his assessment of the newly discovered properties of electromagnets, he expected that when the current in a coil would start to flow, a kind of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the other side. 

He connected a wire to a galvanometer and saw that it connected the opposite wire to battery A. In fact, he saw a momentary current when he connected the wire to the battery, and another when he disconnected it. This induction was thanks to a change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected. 

In two months, Faraday had found other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, you noticed momentary currents when you quickly slid a magnet in and out of the cable's coil and produced a continuous direct current by twisting a copper disc near the bar magnet with a sliding power cable.

Faraday explained EMI using the lines of force concept. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, as they were not mathematically prepared. The one exception was James Clerk Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas in 1861–1862 based on his quantitative electromagnetic theory.

In Maxwell's papers, the time-varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as an equation, which Haviside mentions as Faraday's law, although it differs from the earlier version of Faraday's law, and electromagnetism. It does not describe forces.

Lenz's law, formulated by Emile Lenz in 1834, describes "flow through the circuit" and provides the direction of the induced EMF and the current generated by electromagnetic induction.


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